I. Matters needing attention in cultivation models in Northeast China
After years of promotion, we found that farmers in Northeast China ignored the following issues.
1. Choosing the wrong place. There are many grasslands and low-lying saline-alkali fields in the Northeast. Many farmers choose this kind of land to grow licorice in order to reduce the cost of land, which results in a low yield of licorice. For licorice planting, fertile black oil sandy soil should be used to cultivate the land, which can obtain higher economic benefits.
2. Neglect weed control. Weeds grow more vigorous on the more fertile land. In order to reduce investment, large-scale planters ignore chemical weeding and mechanical weeding. No weeding plan has been formulated. It is considered that it is enough to find someone to remove the grass, but the actual situation is that grass weeds, ash, and amaranth grow quickly and vigorously in the Northeast. It is the scariest thing to grow licorice. 3-5 天，杂草把甘草苗盖住了，田间情况非常糟糕。 After seeing the weeds, the growers hurried to find someone to buy medicines and remedies. At this time, the time to buy medicines and remedies has been delayed by 3-5 days. The weeds covered the licorice seedlings, and the situation in the field was very bad. 30% 以上。 The biggest loss in northeast chain bases is because the weeds are not controlled in time. The damage of general weeds has caused the loss of licorice to exceed 30% . 1 号、 2 号、 3 号，确保苗期田间无杂草。 Therefore, it is necessary to formulate a strict weed control plan before sowing, and purchase special herbicides 1 , 2 , and 3 before sowing to ensure that there is no weeds in the seedling field.
3. Ignore the frost damage in early spring and late autumn. Licorice planted in the Northeast should be planted late and harvested early. 5 月中下旬倒春寒和沙尘暴过了以后，气温达 8 度以上时才能播种，否则就有冻害和沙埋的危险。 Due to the cold spring and sandstorm during the sowing in spring, you must wait until the cold spring and sandstorm in mid-to-late May, when the temperature reaches 8 degrees or more, otherwise there is danger of frost damage and sand burial. When digging up licorice seedlings or licorice products in late autumn, be sure to dig at a temperature above zero, so that the licorice excavated will not be harmed by freezing and air-drying.
。 The above three points are particularly important, and farmers in the Northeast region should keep in mind .
Matters needing attention for cultivation patterns in North China
1. Licorice should be planted in a well-drained and well-irrigated field. 7 、 8 月份都有几场大雨，同时气温在 30 度以上的天气有 40-50 天。 In North China , there are several heavy rains in July and August each year , and the temperature is above 30 degrees for 40-50 days. 月中下旬由于气温太高，加上雨水过大甘草叶子开始脱落，雨水浸泡的甘草有烂根的危险。 Because the temperature is too high in mid-late July and the rain is too large, the licorice leaves begin to fall off. The rain-soaked licorice is in danger of rotten roots. 7 月初到 8 月中旬华北地区的甘草几乎不长，进入 “ 夏眠 ” 状况，此时应排水、除草，追肥 3-5 公斤 尿素 / 亩。 From early July to mid- August , licorice in North China is hardly long and enters the " summer sleep " condition. At this time, it should be drained, weeded, and topdressed with 3-5 kg of urea / mu. 11 月初上冻。 After the beginning of autumn, the weather began to cool, and new leaves grew on the licorice stems, which continued to freeze until early November .
2. Pests must be controlled under and above the grass. Due to the small temperature difference in North China, the occurrence of pests is particularly serious. 6 、 7 、 8 月份有蚜虫、青虫吃甘草茎叶， 8 、 9 月份有叶甲虫。 In early spring, underground pests such as ground tigers and gold needles eat licorice seedlings, aphids and green worms eat licorice stems and leaves in June , July , and August , and leaf beetles in August and September . Once the leaf beetle has been damaged, the leaf will be eaten up within three days. Therefore, pest control in North China is a very important measure for field management.
3. Increase the amount of fertilizer applied. The soil in North China is mostly sandy soil. After years of cultivation, the nutrient loss in the soil is exhausted. When planting licorice, more base fertilizer should be applied. 20 公斤磷酸二胺 +20 公斤 尿素 / 亩，可再加一些农家肥，追肥每年至少 15 公斤磷酸二胺 +15 公斤 尿素 / 亩。 The base fertilizer amount is 20 kg of diamine phosphate + 20 kg of urea / mu, and some farm manure can be added, and the top dressing must be at least 15 kg of diamine phosphate + 15 kg of urea / mu per year . The reason for the generally low yield in North China is that the amount of fertilizer applied is too small, so under the premise of catching the whole seedlings, the more fertilizer applied, the higher the yield.
3. Attentions of cultivation mode in Bashang area
“ 东草 ” 的原产地，是北京、天津沙尘暴的源头。 The Bashang area is located in the northern part of Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province, and the central and eastern part of Inner Mongolia. It is the origin of licorice " East Grass " and the source of sandstorms in Beijing and Tianjin. 30-50 元 / 年。 The climatic conditions in this area are unique. The plateau and meadow soils are dominant, the soil is fertile, the land area is vast, and the land rent is also very cheap, 30-50 yuan per year. Pay attention to the following points when planting licorice.
1. It is necessary to avoid the harm of sandstorm to the licorice seeding period. 2-5 月，该地区要发生大的沙尘暴 5-9 次，小的沙尘暴几十次。 From February to May every year , there are 5-9 large sandstorms and dozens of small sandstorms. When the big sandstorm came, the yellow sand flew for three days and three nights, and the seventh and eighth winds were mixed with sand and stones. People could only hide in the house and not go out. 2005 年 4 月 25 日 在内蒙古正蓝旗播种 900 亩， 5 月 1 日 下了一场雨，甘草发芽极好，但 5 月 9 日 一场沙尘暴把 900 亩甘草芽、种子，甚至 5 厘米 深的土层全部刮走，损失达 40 万元。 The author planted 900 acres of Zhenglan Banner in Inner Mongolia on April 25 , 2005. It rained on May 1 and the licorice germinated very well, but a dust storm on May 9 put 900 acres of licorice buds, seeds and even 5 cm Deep soil layers were scraped away, with a loss of 400,000 yuan. 6 月初为好。 After several years of exploration, in the Bashang area, the planting date should be early June .
2. To prevent perennial root weeds. The area of Bashang is a perennial grassland vegetation. The land is left fallow for one year, and the perennial weeds will grow over the land and restore the original vegetation. 0 号专用除草剂杀灭所有宿根性杂草，如滨草、艾蒿等，然后再翻地、旋耕、播种。 Therefore, before planting licorice, use a special herbicide No. 0 to kill all perennial weeds, such as marram grass, mugwort, etc., and then turn the ground, rotate, and sow.
3. Licorice is planted on leeward and watered land. The key technology of the Bashang area is how to prevent sand and dust storms. Land selection is the key. Once sand storms are encountered, water can be used to press sand.
4. Protect from wind and frost. 20-30 次，除播种期要躲避沙尘暴外，第一年的秋季要防止沙尘暴把甘草根吹出地面而风干。 In the early spring and late autumn of the Bashang area, sandstorms of various sizes reached 20-30 times. In addition to avoiding sandstorms during the sowing period, the first year of autumn should prevent sandstorms from blowing the licorice root out of the ground and drying it. The best way is to water it. Before and after freezing, pouring winter water once can effectively prevent air drying and frost damage. In the spring of the next year, thawing water is poured once the land is thawed to prevent sandstorms in the spring from blowing out licorice roots.
5. Increase yield and fertilize. 90-110 天，生育期短，唯一的好办法就是抓到全苗后重施肥。 The growth period in Bashang area is about 90-110 days, and the growth period is short. The only good way is to re-fertilize after catching the whole seedlings. 30 公斤磷酸二铵、 30 公斤 尿素，弥补生育期短的不足。 The fertilizer can be up to 30 kg of diammonium phosphate and 30 kg of urea per acre per year , making up for the short growth period.