Astragalus cultivation technology and harvest processing
Astragalus is also known as Mianqi and Astragalus. It is a legume perennial herb. Taking root as medicine, it has the functions of nourishing Qi and solidifying the surface, supporting poisoning and purging, and diminishing swelling. Astragalus loves a cool climate, is resistant to drought, cold, heat and waterlogging. The soil quality of the cultivated land is suitable for the neutral and slightly alkaline sandy loam with deep soil layers, rich in humus, and high permeability. Clay and heavy saline-alkali land are not suitable for planting. Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Ningxia, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Sichuan, Tibet and other provinces and autonomous regions are all distributed.
3 月下旬至 4 月上旬播种。 Astragalus is propagated with seeds. The sowing period is divided into spring sowing and autumn sowing. In areas with irrigation conditions, it is sown from late March to early April . It can be broadcast, broadcast or on demand. No matter which method is adopted, the soil cover should not be too thick, the buds will not be uniform, and the seedlings will be broken. 2 厘米。 Sowing depth is generally 2 cm. Although astragalus is tolerant to drought, it requires a certain amount of water in the seedling stage, otherwise it will not emerge or die due to drought. Irrigation should not be too vigorous and excessive, and should be poured less frequently. 15 厘米时间苗，按株距 10 厘米左右定苗。 When the seedlings are 15 cm high, the seedlings are set according to the plant distance of about 10 cm. Soil cultivation before the rainy season. 666.7 米 2 In addition to fertilizing at the time of sowing in the first year, fertilization or composting is still required between the rows in early spring of the second year, every 666.7 m 千克。 500 -1000 kg. 15-20 千克，若苗生长过弱可追施硫酸铵 10 千克。 Add 15-20 kg of superphosphate . If the seedling grows too weak, apply 10 kg of ammonium sulfate . After the application, the soil was covered and irrigated. The fertilizer application in the third and fourth years was the same as that in the second year. 2-4 年收获。 Hebei and Shandong astragalus species are harvested for one year, and Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi astragalus species are harvested for 2-4 years.
( 俗称红根病 ) 。 The main diseases of Astragalus are powdery mildew and Astragalus purple feather disease ( commonly known as red root disease ) . Powdery mildew can occur at both the seedling stage and the adult plant stage. It is mainly caused by leaves and pods. The damaged leaves and pods are covered with powdery powder. Many small black spots appear on the lesions in the later stage, causing early leaves or the entire plant to wither. 800 倍液叶面喷雾 1 ～ 3 次，也可每 15 天喷一次石硫合剂或用 50 ％托布津可湿性粉剂 800-1000 倍液喷雾，每 10 天一次，连续 2 ～ 3 次。 Prevention method: Before or at the beginning of the onset, apply fenning Ning 800 times liquid foliar spray 1 to 3 times, or spray the sulphur mixture every 15 days or use 50 % tobjin wettable powder 800-1000 times liquid spray, every 10 Once a day, 2 to 3 times in a row .
The manifestation of red root disease is rotten roots. The surface of the rotten roots is intertwined with purple fungal cords to form membranes and sclerotia. ① 收获时清除病根，集中烧毁。 Control methods: ① Remove the diseased roots at harvest and burn them intensively. 与禾本科作物轮作 3-4 年。 ② Rotation with grass crops for 3-4 years. 发现病株及时挖除，病穴及其周围撒上石灰粉，以防蔓延。 ③ The diseased plants were found to be dug out in time, and lime powder was sprinkled on and around the diseased cavities to prevent spread. 雨季注意排水，降低田间湿度。 ④ Pay attention to drainage in the rainy season to reduce field humidity. 结合整地每 666.7 米 2 用 70 ％敌克松 1.5 ～ 2 千克进行土壤消毒处理。 ⑤ Combine soil preparation to disinfect soil with 1.5 to 2 kg of 70 % dicresol every 666.7 m 2 .
Harvesting and processing
1 ～ 4 年秋季从落叶到霜降或春季解冻后萌芽前均可采挖。 From 1 to 4 years after sowing, they can be mined from fallen leaves to frost or before germination after thawing in spring. 2 ～ 4 年者质量最好。 But the quality is best for those who grow for 2 to 4 years. If the planting period is too long, the roots are black and the quality is reduced. When digging, plan deep to prevent breaking the root. 1 ～ 2 天再晒，直到晒干为止，剪去侧根及须根，扎成小捆即成生黄芪。 After harvesting, cut the reed head, shake the soil, dry it until it is half-dried, pile it up for 1 to 2 days, and then dry it until it is dry. Cut off the lateral roots and whiskers, and bundle them into small bundles to form raw astragalus. Those who are dry, thick and long, firm and soft, sweet and powdery are preferred.
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