Scutellaria baicalensis cultivation technology and harvest processing
Scutellaria baicalensis is also known as camellia root and genus Camellia root. Taking root medicine, it has the effects of clearing away heat, dampness, and cooling blood. -30 ℃低温，植株又能耐 35 ℃左右的高温。 Huang Zhixi is warm, resistant to high temperatures and extreme cold, the underground roots of grown plants can withstand low temperatures of -30 ℃, and the plants can withstand high temperatures of about 35 ℃. It grows well in loam or sandy land with high dryness, sunny, moderate rainfall, good drainage, neutral and slightly alkaline. Scutellaria baicalensis is resistant to drought and is afraid of waterlogging. It grows badly in low-lying areas or where there is too much rain, which can easily cause rotten root death. Mainly produced in Hebei, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shandong, Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang and other provinces and autonomous regions.
Scutellaria baicalensis breeds with seeds. 3 个多月，且种子成熟期很不一致，极易脱落。 The flowering and fruiting period of Scutellaria baicalensis is longer, more than 3 months, and the maturity of the seeds is very inconsistent, and it is easy to fall off. Therefore, the seeds should be harvested as soon as they are ripe. Finally, the fruit branches can be cut off, dried and the seeds can be dried. After net selection, they can be stored in a cloth bag in a cool and dry place for storage. 60 ％～ 80 ％。 In that year, the germination rate of new seeds was 60 % ～ 80 %. 15 ～ 18 ℃的温度下，有足够的湿度，播种后约 10 ～ 12 天出苗。 At a temperature of 15 to 18 ℃, there is sufficient humidity, and seedlings will emerge about 10 to 12 days after sowing .
There are two types of seeding, direct seeding and seedling raising. Direct seeding is better. After seeding, it will grow faster, with longer roots, fewer right roots, and higher yield. For small area planting, for easy management, seedlings can also be transplanted.
4 月中旬，秋播于 8 月中旬进行。 The live broadcast is divided into spring broadcast and autumn broadcast. Spring broadcast is in mid-April and autumn broadcast is in mid- August . 30 ～ 35 厘米，沟深 1 ～ 3 厘米，将种子均匀撒入沟内，覆土盖平，镇压后浇水，每 666.7 米 2 播种量 2 千克，播种后经常保持土壤湿润，以利出苗。 Trenching should be done, with a pitch of 30 to 35 cm and a depth of 1 to 3 cm. Spread the seeds evenly into the trench, cover with soil, flatten it, and water it after suppression. The seeding rate is 2 kg per 666.7 m2 . Keep the soil moist after seeding To facilitate emergence. 3 月底或 4 月初，在整平耙细的苗床上，按行距 20 ～ 27 厘米开横沟，深 2 厘米左右。 Select a warm and sunny place for seedlings to make seedbeds. At the end of March or early April, open the horizontal grooves with a row spacing of 20 to 27 cm and a depth of about 2 cm. 40 ～ 45 ℃温水浸种 5 ～ 6 Before sowing, soak seeds in warm water at 40 ～ 45 ℃ for 5 ～ 6 Hours, remove to dry slightly, sow immediately. 1 厘米，以不见种子为度。 After sowing, cover the fine soil with a thickness of 1 cm. 15 ～ 20 ℃时育苗地，在出苗前后都要保持土壤湿润，苗床在苗出齐后，要适当通风，苗高 3 厘米时，逐渐把塑料膜去掉，以免徒长，结合拔草间去过密的苗，苗高 5 ～ 6 厘米时，定植于大田，按行距 30 ～ 35 厘米、株距 10 ～ 12 厘米栽 1 株苗，栽后浇水。 Use a fine-hole watering can to spray water. The surface can be covered with a plastic film to keep the soil moist. When the air temperature is 15 ～ 20 ℃, the soil should be kept moist before and after emergence. At 3 cm, gradually remove the plastic film to avoid excessive length. Combine with the over-dried seedlings when weeding. When the height of the seedlings is 5-6 cm, set them in the field. Seedlings, watered after planting. 3 厘米时，结合松土除草，按株距 6 ～ 10 厘米定苗，苗期生长缓慢，植株较小，要经常松土除草，保持畦内表土层松软无杂草。 When the seedlings are 3 cm high, weeding with weeding soil and setting seedlings at a plant spacing of 6 to 10 cm will result in slow growth at the seedling stage and small plants. Weeding must be done with weeding to keep the inner soil layer soft and weed-free. 6 月底或 7 月初，每 666.7 米 2 追施过磷酸钙 20 千克加硫酸铵 10 千克，在行间开沟施下，施后覆土，若干旱时浇水。 At the end of June or early July , 20 kilograms of superphosphate plus 10 kilograms of ammonium sulfate were applied every 666.7 m 2 , and ditching was applied between the rows. After the application, the soil was covered and watered in case of drought. If seeds are not collected, to promote root growth, cut flower branches. 6 月下旬各追肥一次，其他管理同第一年。 After returning to youth in the second year and in late June , topdressing was performed once each time, and other management was the same as in the first year.
The diseases of Scutellaria baicalensis are mainly leaf blight, which damages the leaves. At the beginning of the disease, first from the leaf tip. Or irregular dark brown lesions appear on the leaf edge, and then spread quickly from bottom to top. In severe cases, the leaves die. Control methods: ① After harvesting in winter, remove the diseased branches and leaves to eliminate the source of wintering disease. 50 ％多菌灵 1000 倍液，或 1 ： 1 ： 120 波尔多液，每 7 ～ 10 天一次，连喷 2 ～ 3 次。 ② Use 50 % Carbendazim 1000 times solution, or 1 : 1 : 120 Bordeaux solution, once every 7 to 10 days, and then spray 2 to 3 times.
Harvesting and processing
2 ～ 3 年、育苗的于移栽后第二春萌发前，或 10 月上中旬茎叶枯萎后采挖。 The live seedlings were excavated 2 to 3 years after sowing , the seedlings were germinated before the second spring germination after transplanting, or the stems and leaves withered in early October . Due to the deep roots of Scutellaria baicalensis, it is necessary to dig deep during harvesting and carefully dig the whole root to avoid injury and broken roots. Then, remove the stems and place them in the basket when they are half-dried, and knock off the old skin to make the roots brownish yellow. Then dry it until it is completely dry, hit the old skin, make the shape smooth and yellow-white ready-made products. However, avoid overexposure during drying, otherwise the root strips will become red; at the same time, prevent rain and water washing, otherwise the root strips will turn green and black when they see water, which will affect the quality.
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